# Extending¶

The bit generators have been designed to be extendable using standard tools for high-performance Python – numba and Cython. The `numpy.random.Generator` object can also be used with user-provided bit generators as long as these export a small set of required functions.

## Numba¶

Numba can be used with either CTypes or CFFI. The current iteration of the bit generators all export a small set of functions through both interfaces.

This example shows how numba can be used to produce Box-Muller normals using a pure Python implementation which is then compiled. The random numbers are provided by `ctypes.next_double`.

``````from randomgen import ChaCha
import numpy as np
import numba as nb

x = ChaCha()
f = x.ctypes.next_double
s = x.ctypes.state

def normals(n, state):
out = np.empty(n)
for i in range((n+1)//2):
x1 = 2.0*f(state) - 1.0
x2 = 2.0*f(state) - 1.0
r2 = x1*x1 + x2*x2
while r2 >= 1.0 or r2 == 0.0:
x1 = 2.0*f(state) - 1.0
x2 = 2.0*f(state) - 1.0
r2 = x1*x1 + x2*x2
g = np.sqrt(-2.0*np.log(r2)/r2)
out[2*i] = g*x1
if 2*i+1 < n:
out[2*i+1] = g*x2
return out

# Compile using Numba
print(normals(10, s).var())
# Warm up
normalsj = nb.jit(normals, nopython=True)
# Must use state address not state with numba
print('1,000,000 Box-Muller (numba/ChaCha) randoms')
%timeit np.random.standard_normal(1000000)
print('1,000,000 Box-Muller (NumPy) randoms')
``````

Both CTypes and CFFI allow the more complicated distributions to be used directly in Numba after compiling the file distributions.c into a DLL or so. An example showing the use of a more complicated distribution is in the examples folder.

## Cython¶

Cython can be used to unpack the `PyCapsule` provided by a bit generator. This example uses `Xoroshiro128` and `random_gauss_zig`, the Ziggurat-based generator for normals, to fill an array. The usual caveats for writing high-performance code using Cython – removing bounds checks and wrap around, providing array alignment information – still apply.

`````` import numpy as np
cimport numpy as np
cimport cython
from cpython.pycapsule cimport PyCapsule_IsValid, PyCapsule_GetPointer
from randomgen.common cimport *
from randomgen.distributions cimport random_gauss_zig
from randomgen.xoroshiro128 import Xoroshiro128

@cython.boundscheck(False)
@cython.wraparound(False)
def normals_zig(Py_ssize_t n):
cdef Py_ssize_t i
cdef bitgen_t *rng
cdef const char *capsule_name = "BitGenerator"
cdef double[::1] random_values

x = Xoroshiro128()
capsule = x.capsule
# Optional check that the capsule if from a BitGenerator
if not PyCapsule_IsValid(capsule, capsule_name):
raise ValueError("Invalid pointer to anon_func_state")
# Cast the pointer
rng = <bitgen_t *> PyCapsule_GetPointer(capsule, capsule_name)
random_values = np.empty(n)
for i in range(n):
# Call the function
random_values[i] = random_gauss_zig(rng)
randoms = np.asarray(random_values)
return randoms
``````

The bit generator can also be directly accessed using the members of the bit generator’s structure.

``````@cython.boundscheck(False)
@cython.wraparound(False)
def uniforms(Py_ssize_t n):
cdef Py_ssize_t i
cdef bitgen_t *rng
cdef const char *capsule_name = "BitGenerator"
cdef double[::1] random_values

x = Xoroshiro128()
capsule = x.capsule
# Optional check that the capsule if from a BitGenerator
if not PyCapsule_IsValid(capsule, capsule_name):
raise ValueError("Invalid pointer to anon_func_state")
# Cast the pointer
rng = <bitgen_t *> PyCapsule_GetPointer(capsule, capsule_name)
random_values = np.empty(n)
for i in range(n):
# Call the function
random_values[i] = rng.next_double(rng.state)
randoms = np.asarray(random_values)
return randoms
``````

These functions along with a minimal setup file are included in the examples folder.

## New Bit Generators¶

`Generator` can be used with other user-provided bit generators. The simplest way to write a new bit generator is to examine the pyx file of one of the existing bit generators. The key structure that must be provided is the `capsule` which contains a `PyCapsule` to a struct pointer of type `bitgen_t`,

``````typedef struct bitgen {
void *state;
uint64_t (*next_uint64)(void *st);
uint32_t (*next_uint32)(void *st);
double (*next_double)(void *st);
uint64_t (*next_raw)(void *st);
} bitgen_t;
``````

which provides 5 pointers. The first is an opaque pointer to the data structure used by the bit generator. The next three are function pointers which return the next 64- and 32-bit unsigned integers, the next random double and the next raw value. This final function is used for testing and so can be set to the next 64-bit unsigned integer function if not needed. Functions inside `Generator` use this structure as in

``````bitgen_state->next_uint64(bitgen_state->state)
``````

## Python BitGenerators¶

`UserBitGenerator` is a utility class that lets users write bit generators in Python. While these are inherently low performance, this interface allows users to rapidly prototype a bit generator and to pass this bit generator to a `Generator` to generate variates from the full spectrum of distributions.